Pips & Lots


The acronym “pip” stands for “percentage in point” or “price interest point.” According to forex market convention, a pip is the smallest price movement that an exchange rate may make. Most currency pairs are priced to four decimal places, with the pip change representing the last (fourth) decimal point. Therefore, a pip is equivalent to one basis point or 1/100 of one percent.

For example, the smallest shift the USD/CAD currency pair may make is $0.0001, or one basis point.

How Pips Work

A pip is a basic concept in foreign exchange (forex). Forex pairs are used to disseminate accurate exchange quotes to four decimal places through bid and ask quotes. Forex traders, in basic words, buy or sell a currency whose value is expressed in relation to another currency.

The movement of the exchange rate is measured in pips. Because most currency pairs are quoted to four decimal places, the smallest change in these pairs is one pip. A pip’s value may be calculated by dividing the exchange rate by 1/10,000 or 0.0001.


A lot is the standardized number of units of a traded asset. Often, the actual value of an asset or security makes trading a single unit viable. In these cases, traders will employ a fixed amount of a particular asset that you buy or sell in each transaction. An ‘odd lot’ is one in which the position size does not match the standardized lot amount.

A lot’s value is determined by an exchange or a similar market regulator, and it is often the smallest number of units that may be purchased of a particular financial instrument. This regulation ensures that when investors open a position, they always know how much of an asset they are trading.

Trading in lots isn’t as important in the options and futures markets since you may trade whatever amount of contracts you like. Each stock option is worth 100 shares, and each futures contract controls the contract size of the underlying asset.

A person may trade forex with a minimum of 1,000 of the base currency in any increment of 1,000. They might, for example, trade 1,451,000. This consists of 14 standard lots, five mini lots, and one micro lot. A person may trade in odd lots of fewer than 100 shares in a stock trade.

How Lot Work

When investors and traders buy and sell financial instruments on the capital markets, they do so in large quantities. A lot is a fixed number of units that is determined by the financial security traded.

Before the advent of online trading, the common lot size for stocks was round lots of 100 shares for many years. A round lot may also refer to a number of shares that can be divided evenly by 100, such as 300, 1,200, or 15,500 shares. 1

However, odd lots (orders for fewer than 100 shares) and mixed lots (orders for more than 100 shares but not divisible by 100) are becoming increasingly common. The round lot for exchange-traded securities, such as an exchange-traded fund (ETF), is 100 shares, similar to stocks.